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"United Arab Emirates
Honor 2006"

SUDAN Map Geography People Economy Military Library of Congress Country Study

State Sponsor of Terrorism - 20 years civil war - Slavery
20 years of genocide in S-Sudan: 2 million deaths, 4 million displaced
State-sponsored genocide in Darfur: 400,000 deaths, 2,500,000 displaced
Military conflict with Arab Egypt over Halayeb Triangle territory (size as Israel)
Attacked Muslims Chad
Sudan man forced to 'marry' goat
Virtually all females genitally mutilated during childhood

Compare Freedom Score of Sudan (Not Free) and Israel (Free)
Source: Freedom House
(PDF, 187 KB)

Compare Human Development Index of Sudan (0.503) and Israel (0.905) (PDF, 670 KB)
Source: United Nations Human Development Report 2003

Compare Corruption Index of Sudan (1.8), Israel (7.3), Germany (7.3) and USA (7.7)
Source: Transparency International
(PDF, 1.8 MB)

Designation as State Sponsor of Terrorism by the United States: "The United States and Sudan in mid-2000 entered into a dialogue to discuss US counterterrorism concerns. The talks, which were ongoing at the end of the year, were constructive and obtained some positive results. By the end of the year Sudan had signed all 12 international conventions for combating terrorism and had taken several other positive counterterrorism steps, including closing down the Popular Arab and Islamic Conference, which served as a forum for terrorists. Sudan, however, continued to be used as a safehaven by members of various groups, including associates of Usama Bin Ladin's al-Qaida organization, Egyptian al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and HAMAS. Most groups used Sudan primarily as a secure base for assisting compatriots elsewhere. Khartoum also still had not complied fully with UN Security Council Resolutions 1044, 1054, and 1070, passed in 1996--which demand that Sudan end all support to terrorists. They also require Khartoum to hand over three Egyptian Gama'a fugitives linked to the assassination attempt in 1995 against Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia. Sudanese officials continued to deny that they had a role in the attack."

Sudan's Designation by the United States as “Country of Particular Concern” Under the International Religious Freedom Act.

Why Israel, and not Sudan, is singled out (Boston Globe, Charles Jacob, Oct 5, 2002)

Death in Darfur (Arab-American activist Mohamed Buisier, Wall Street Journal, Jun 2, 2006): Once again, the international community, and the U.N. in particular, is being shamed into acting to stop the massacres in Darfur, and once again the Arab League and Arab leaders are unwilling and unable to face facts, or to deal with them in a civilized and humane manner. Indeed, the most recent Arab League summit, which took place in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum -- presumably as a show of support to the host government -- ended with a resolution denying that any massacres had taken place in Darfur and expressing resistance to any outside intervention in the "internal" affairs of an Arab country. (Not surprisingly, this stance is identical to that taken by Osama Bin Laden.)

Washington Times: "On Oct. 21, President George W. Bush signed into law the Sudan Peace Act, which the Senate had unanimously passed, and the House approved 359-8. More than 2 million black, non-Muslim civilians in the South have died from an ongoing civil war since 1983 in that country. The United States now declares in a law that "the acts of the government of Sudan . . . constitute genocide as defined by the (1948 United Nations) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The northern National Islamic Front government in Khartoum has enslaved women and children in the south of Sudan; engaged in ethnic cleansing; bombed churches and schools; and prevented food from humanitarian agencies from reaching the black Christians and animists trying to withstand the armed "jihad" forces of the north."

Sudan Peace Act (U.S. Congress, H.R.5531, Oct 7, 2002): "The Government of Sudan has intensified its prosecution of the war against areas outside of its control, which has already cost more than 2,000,000 lives and has displaced more than 4,000,000 people. ... The Government of Sudan utilizes and organizes militias, Popular Defense Forces, and other irregular units for raiding and enslaving parties in areas outside of the control of the Government of Sudan in an effort to disrupt severely the ability of the populations in those areas to sustain themselves. ... The acts of the Government of Sudan, including the acts described in this section, constitute genocide as defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (78 U.N.T.S. 277). ... The Congress hereby--
(1) condemns--
(A) violations of human rights on all sides of the conflict in Sudan;
(B) the Government of Sudan's overall human rights record, with regard to both the prosecution of the war and the denial of basic human and political rights to all Sudanese;
(C) the ongoing slave trade in Sudan and the role of the Government of Sudan in abetting and tolerating the practice;
(D) the Government of Sudan's use and organization of `murahalliin' or `mujahadeen', Popular Defense Forces, and regular Sudanese Army units into organized and coordinated raiding and slaving parties in Bahr al Ghazal, the Nuba Mountains, and the Upper Nile and the Blue Nile regions; and
(E) aerial bombardment of civilian targets that is sponsored by the Government of Sudan; and
(2) recognizes that, along with selective bans on air transport relief flights by the Government of Sudan, the use of raiding and slaving parties is a tool for creating food shortages and is used as a systematic means to destroy the societies, culture, and economies of the Dinka, Nuer, and Nuba peoples in a policy of low-intensity ethnic cleansing."
The [Sudan Peace] Act passed the U.S. House of Representatives on October 7, 2002 by a vote of 359-8. The Senate passed the same language by unanimous consent on October 9, 2002 (U.S. Department of State, Oct 21, 2002).

For the U.N., a Sudanese Slave is Not a Slave (David G. Littman, FrontPageMagazine, | Nov 22, 2002): It is time to call a black African Sudanese slave a slave, particularly in the UNCHR’s resolution on Sudan, and to utterly condemn slavery – not « abduction » - by its true name, that genocidal crime against humanity. But in order to understand the Kafka-esque reality at the United Nations, one should recall that, one year ago - in spite of prior and current resolutions condemning its « ongoing slave trade » - Sudan was nominated, regionally, to be one of the three vice-chairmen of the UNCHR, while the United States lost its seat, and is only now returning to that UN body. In 2002 it was the turn of Syria. And in 2003, we now know that the Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights will be, not Algeria, which was expected, but the lady ambassador of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya – at Col. Muammar Qadhafi's regional command.

International Red Cross: "… the largest number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world. The 1996 Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) Assessment estimated that four million Sudanese are internally displaced …"

DARFUR DESTROYED. Ethnic Cleansing by Government and Militia Forces in Western Sudan (Human Rights Watch, May 2004): "The government of Sudan is responsible for “ethnic cleansing” and crimes against humanity in Darfur, one of the world’s poorest and most inaccessible regions, on Sudan’s western border with Chad. The Sudanese government and the Arab “Janjaweed” militias it arms and supports have committed numerous attacks on the civilian populations of the African Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa ethnic groups. Government forces oversaw and directly participated in massacres, summary executions of civilians-including women and children—burnings of towns and villages, and the forcible depopulation of wide swathes of land long inhabited by the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa. ... The government and its Janjaweed allies have killed thousands of Fur, Masalit, and Zaghawa-- often in cold blood, raped women, and destroyed villages, food stocks and other supplies essential to the civilian population. They have driven more than one million civilians, mostly farmers, into camps and settlements in Darfur where they live on the very edge of survival, hostage to Janjaweed abuses. More than 110,000 others have fled to neighbouring Chad but the vast majority of war victims remain trapped in Darfur."

Slavery and Slave Redemption in the Sudan (Human Rights Watch, March 2002):
"... government-backed and armed militia of the Baggara tribes raid to capture children and women who are then held in conditions of slavery in western Sudan and elsewhere. They are forced to work for free in homes and in fields, punished when they refuse, and abused physically and sometimes sexually. Raids are directed mostly at the civilian Dinka population of the southern region of Bahr El Ghazal. The government arms and sanctions the practice of slavery ..."

Women and Children as the Spoils of "Holy War" (iAbolish - The Anti-Slavery Portal)
Danford Report (US Department of State)
Danford Report (US Department of State) (PDF, 629 KB)

Human Rights Watch (HRW) Papers on Slavery in Sudan, Sudanese Justice incl. Stonings and Amputations

Links to Sudan Slavery Groups

Report on Female Genital Mutilation, Sudan (U.S. Department of State, Jun 1, 2001): About 90% of Sudanese women [= 14.4 million] have undergone Female Genital Mutilation
Pictures of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), 2002
(These pictures are not suitable for children. They are extremely disturbing!!!)

The World Medical Association Statement on Female Genital Mutilation, Oct 1993: “The World Medical Association condemns the practice of genital mutilation including circumcision where women and girls are concerned and condemns the participation of physicians in the execution of such practices.”
Policy Statement | Female Genital Mutilation (American Academy of Pediatrics, PEDIATRICS Vol. 102 No. 1 Jul 1998, pp. 153-156): “... pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice [FGM] has serious, life-threatening health risks for children and women. The AAP opposes all forms of FGM …” [Disturbing graphical descriptions included]

Trafficking in Persons Report 2002 (U.S. Department of State) (PDF, 630 KB) - Sudan, Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Library of Congress's Country Studies (Sudan)
CIA World Factbook (Sudan): "Since 1983, the war and war- and famine-related effects have led to more than 2 million deaths and over 4 million people displaced. The war pits the Arab/Muslim majority in Khartoum against the non-Muslim African rebels in the south ...

Sudan agrees in 2002 to demarcate whole boundary with Ethiopia; Egypt and Sudan each claim to administer triangular areas which extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel (the north "Hala'ib Triangle" is the largest with 20,580 sq km); in 2001, the two states agreed to discuss an "area of integration" and withdraw military forces in the overlapping areas; since colonial times, Kenya's administrative boundary has extended beyond its treaty boundary into Sudan creating the 'Ilemi Triangle'".

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